Thursday, 12 January 2012


Introduction

Transportation is the backbone of any country’s economy. Advancement intransportation systems has lead to a lifestyle characterized by extraordinary freedom of movement, immense trade in manufactured goods and services, high employment levels and social mobility. In fact, the economic wealth of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation.

Due to increasing number of vehicles on the road, problems such as congestion, incident, air pollution and many others have become a major factor of concern. Evidently, nearly all-economic activities at some point use different means of transportation to operate. For that reason, enhancing transportation will have an immediate impact on productivity and the economy.

Reducing the costs of transporting natural resources to production sites and moving finished goods to markets is one of the key factors in economic competition. This task requires that the linkage between any two states or any two places is such as to reduce travel time, reduce congestion, increase efficiency, and increase safety.

By increasing system efficiency and using modern technology the capacity of the current limited resources can be optimized. Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) systems aimed at increasing traffic flow by reducing toll transaction time. This research develops a model to study the benefits of ETC.

ETC benefits can be broadly divided into three categories: toll agency benefits, user benefits, and social benefits. The toll agency benefits include reduction in operating cost, reduction in man labor, reduction in maintenance cost, and enhanced cash handling. The user benefits include time saving due to the elimination of the hassle of digging for change and the elimination of acceleration and deceleration as the vehicles do not stop for toll transaction. In addition, there is time saving due to the reduced toll transaction time and average waiting time. Moreover, considerable fuel is save due to elimination of acceleration. The social benefits include the reduction in mobile emissions that impact the nearby areas where ETC is deployed. This research considers the user and the social benefits as they represent the biggest advantages for ETC implementation.

The model will serve as a decision making tool to determine the effect of ETC lanes over the manual and automatic lanes. The number of these lanes will be varied to study their effect on the total benefits. The model will be evaluated using C programming and a sensitivity study will be done on the values of the parameters to verify their effect on the output of the model.

One of the biggest complaints of motorists using toll roads is the congestion and delay caused by stopping to pay at the tollbooths. Many toll authorities have searched for ways to improve the toll collection process. Over the last decade, a significant improvement in this process was implemented and dubbed Electronic Toll Collection (ETC). As these ETC systems are gaining widespread use throughout the country and even the world, efforts are being made to improve and expand their interoperability similar to the way home bulletin board systems (BBS) grew first into local networks and finally into Internet Service Providers (ISPs). There may come a day in the not to distant future where automobiles have built-in transponders that can be registered with the local toll authority yet used throughout the country for toll roads and parking.


Technology Description:

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

An ETC system commonly utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. RFID is a generic term used to identify technologies utilizing radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology was first introduced in 1948 when Harry Stockman wrote a paper exploring RFID technology entitled, “Communication by Means of Reflected Power”. RFID technology has evolved since then, and has been implemented in various applications, such as in warehouse management, library system, attendance system, theft prevention, and so on. In general, RFID is used for tracking, tracing, and identifying objects.

A complete RFID system consists of a transponder (tag), reader/writer, antenna, and computer host. The transponder, better known as the tag, is a microchip combined with an antenna system in a compact package. The microchip contains memory and logic circuits to receive and send data back to the reader. These tags are classified as either active or passive tags. Active tags have internal batteries that allow a longer reading range, while passive tags are powered by the signal from its reader and thus have shorter reading range.

Tags could also be classified based on the content and format of information. The classifications range from Class 0 to Class 5. These Classes have been determined by the Electronic Product Code (EPC) Global Standard. In the table below, classes refer to a tag’s basic functionality (i.e., it either has a memory or an on-board power), while generation refers to the tag specification’s major release or version number. The class structure for the tags is shown in the table below.

EPC Class
Definition
Programming
Class-0 Gen-1
Read only, Passive tags
Programmed by the factory
Class -1Gen-1
Write once, read- many, passive tags
Programmed by the user and then locked
Class-1Gen-2
Write-many, read-many, passive tags
Programmed by the user and then locked
Class-2
Rewritable passive tags with extra
functionality, including encryption and emulation
Can be reprogrammed
Class-3
Semi-passive tags that support
Broadband communication

Class-4
Active tags that Can communicate with other peers

Class-5
Readers, they can power other tags of Class 1, 2 and 3, can communicate with Class 4 wirelessly


(Types of RFID)


A reader contains an antenna to transmit and receive data from the tag. The reader also contains a decoder and an RF module. It could be mounted or built as a portable handheld device. The computer host acts as an interface to an IT platform for exchanging information between the RFID system and the end-user. This host system then converts the information obtained from the RFID system into useful information for the end-user.
                                                                      
                                                               (Basic flow of system)


RFID Toll Collection System

This problem on conventional tollbooth can be solved by RFID based Highway Toll Collection system.

RFID based Highway Toll Collection system allows vehicles to go through toll booths without halting and the toll amount gets deducted from the rechargeable account on record.

There are various technologies being used world-wide like Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), Vehicle Identification System using number plates, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) decided up on implementing RFID system due to its beneficial features which we will learn about in this post.

Passive Tags: These are also known as the transponders and are used for toll collection by the system. These tags can be easily installed by just sticking it on the windscreen of the vehicle; it also has high reliability of identification.

Smart Card: It uses contactless stored-value Smart Cards in a pre-paid toll collection system. The motorist flashes the card on the reader installed at the toll booth. The corresponding toll fee is automatically deducted from the card. The smart card can be used for multiple trips until the stored value is exhausted.

Smart cards can be purchased with or recharged at the operator's designed outlets. As the motorist approaches the toll booth, the card is simply flashed at the reading area of the reader When it sensed by the reader, signal light turns on. Green for go and the barrier opens automatically. Red for insufficient, zero balance or defective card and the barrier remains closed. The LCD display on the reader will show the appropriate messages.

(Block Diagram of RFID Toll Collection System)

Explanation of Block Diagram:

Microcontroller: It is basically a chip or an IC, which is programmable. It sends signals, high (1) or low (0) to the devices and the device functions accordingly. It is basically the heart of any system.

LCD: It is basically a display device that is used to display the output or process of our program. Here it displays the password entered, & all the information send by the GPS system.

POWER SUPPLY: It is used to run the entire system. +5V is used to run microcontroller, whereas +12V is used to run GSM modem.

MAX 232: The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals

RFID MODULE: The ROBOKITS RFID reader is a standalone module with RFID reader and antenna. It is very small (32mmx32mm) in size and easy to integrate with any hardware design. It supports 125KHz RFID tags and has DIP 0.1” pins to. Onboard antenna and hard plastic cover makes device small and sturdy. The module works on UART protocol which allows user to integrate it with any PC or Microcontroller based design. It also supports Weigand protocol.

RTC (Real Time Clock): A real-time clock (RTC) is a computer clock (most often in the form of an integrated circuit) that keeps track of the current time. Although the term often refers to the devices in personal computers, servers and embedded systems, RTCs are present in almost any electronic device which needs to keep accurate time.

                                                           Toll Gate Entrance Flow Chart
                                                                  (Prepaid and Postpaid)

Circuit Diagram



                                                  Circuit Diagram of RFID Toll Collection System



Explanation of Circuit Diagram:

Here, we use P89V51RD2, a 40 pin microcontroller.
All other components used are using its pins for sending & receiving signals.

LCD is on port P0. As this port has no internal pull-up resistor, we connect entire pull-up resistor network to it.
Crystal source is between pin 18 & 19.
Reset is pin 9.

  Component List and Description                     
               Microcontroller: P89V51RD2

LCD: 20 x 4

MAX232

Power Supply 5 V, 12 V

CRYSTAL: 11.0592MHz



1)    Microcontroller: P89V51RD2

         Features:

8-bit data bus

16-bit address bus

64K system-on-chip ROM

128 bytes RAM

Two 16-bit Timers/Counters

1 serial port

5 Interrupt sources + 1 internal for reset

11.0592 MHz crystal.

4 Ports each of 8-bit.


P89V51RD2 is a 40 pin Dual Inline Package (DIP) microcontroller. It has 8 bit data bus which means it is 8 bit microcontroller. Thus, it has 256 B RAM, out of which, 128 B are available as memory & others are used for Special function registers. It has 16 bit address bus meaning it can access a memory of 64 KB. It can work on a range of 0-40 MHz, though we used 11.0592 MHz for matching rates of serial communication.


 (Pin Diagram of Microcontroller P89V51RD2)

Vcc

            Pin 40 provides supply voltage to chip. The voltage source is +5V.



GND

            The pin 20 is the ground.



XTAL1 and XTAL2

            The 8051 has an on-chop oscillator but requires an external clock to run it. Most often a quartz crystal oscillator is connected to inputs XTAL1 and XTAL2. The Quartz crystal oscillator connected to XTAL1 and XTAL2 also needs two capacitors to the ground.

            It must be noted that there are various speed of the 8051 family. Speed refers to the maximum oscillator frequency connected to XTAL. When the 8051 is connected to a crystal oscillator and is powered up, we can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin using the oscilloscope.



RST

            Pin 9 is the RESET pin. It is an input and is active high. Upon applying a high pulse to this pin, the microcontroller will reset and terminate all activities. This is often referred to as a power-on reset. Activating a power-on reset will cause all values in the registers to be lost. It will set program counter to all 0s.

            In order for the RESET input to be effective, it must have a minimum duration of two machine cycles. In other words, the high pulse must be high for a minimum of two machine cycles before it is allowed to go low.



EA

            The 8051 family members, such as the 8751/52, 89C51/52, or DS89C4X0, all come with on-chip ROM to store programs. In such cases, the EA pin is connected to Vcc. For family members such as the 8031 and 8032 in which there is no on-chip ROM, code is stored on an external ROM and is fetched by the 8031/32. Therefore, for the 8031 the EA pin must be connected to GND to indicate that the code is stored externally. EA, which stands for “external excess” is pin number 31 in the DIP packages. It is an input pin and must be connected to either Vcc or GND. In other words, it cannot be left unconnected.



PSEN

            This is an output pin. PSEN stands for “program store enable”. In an 8031-based system in which an external ROM holds the program code, this pin is connected to the 0E pin of the ROM.



ALE

            ALE (address latch enable) is an output pin and is active high. When connecting an 8031 to external memory, port 0 provides both address and data. In other words, the 8031 multiplexer address and data through port 0 to save pins. The ALE pin is used for demultiplexing the address and data by connecting to the G pin of the 74LS373 chop.



PORT  0, 1, 2, and 3

            The four ports P0, P1, P2, and P3 each use 8 pins, making them 8-bit ports. All the ports upon RESET are configured as input, since P0-P3 have value FFH on them.



P0

            Port 0 is also designated as AD0-AD7, allowing it to be used for both address and data. When connecting an 8051/31 to an external memory, port 0 provides both address and data. The 8051 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins. ALE indicates if P0 has address or data. When ALE = 0, it provides data D0-D7, but when ALE = 1 it has address A0-A7. Therefore, ALE is used for demultiplexing address and data with the help of a 74LS373 latch. In the 8051 based systems where there is no external memory connection, the pins of P0 must be connected externally to a 10K-ohm pull-up resistor. This is due to the fact that P0 is an open drain, unlike P1, P2 and P3. Open drain is a term used for MOS chip in the same way that open collector is used for TTL chips. In many systems using the 8751, 89C51, or DS89C4x0 chips, we normally connect P0 to pill-up resistors. With external pull-up resistors connected to P0, it can be used as a simple I/O port, just like P1 and P2. In contrast to port 0, ports P1, P2, and P3 do not need any pull-up resistors since they already have pull-up resistors internally. Upon reset, ports P1, P2 and P3 are configured as input ports.



P1 AND P2

            In 8051-based systems with no external memory connections, both P1 and P2 are used as simple I/O. However, in 8031/51-based systems with external memory connections, port 2 must be used along with P0 to provide the 16-bit address for the external memory. Port 2 is also designated as A8-A15, indicating its dual function. Since an 8031/51 is capable of accessing 64K bytes of external memory, its need a path of the 16-bit address. While P0 provides the lower 8 bit via A0-A7, it is a job of P2 to provide bits A8-A15 of the 16-bit address, and it cannot be used for I/O.



PORT 3

            Port 3 occupies a total of 8 pins, pins 10 through 17. It can be used as input or output. P3 does not need any pull-up resistors, the same as P1 and P2 did not. Although port 3 is configured as an input port upon reset, this is not the way it is most commonly used. Port 3 has the additional function of providing some extremely important signals such as interrupts.

            P3.0 and P3.1 are used for the RxD and TxD serial communication signals. Bits P3.2 and P3.3 are set aside for external interrupts. Bits P3.4 and P3.5 are used for timers 0 and 1. Bits P3.6 and P3.7 are used to provide the WR and RD signal of external memory connections. In system based on the 8051, pins 3.6 and 3.7 are used for I/O while the rest of the pins in port 3 are normally used in the alternate function role.





2)      LCD : 20 x 4



(Figure 4.2 LCD 20*4)









SR. NO
PIN
FUNCTION
1.
VSS
GROUNDED
2.
VDD
+5V
3.
VEE
CONTRAST VARY, GROUNDED HERE
4.
RS
REGISTER SELECT,
5.
R/W
READ / WRITE
6.
EN
ENABLE
7.



D0-D7



DATA LINES
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
BL+
BACKLIGHT+
16.
BL-
BACKLIGHT-

(Table 4.1 PIN Function of LCD)

Vcc, Vss and VEE:

Vcc: grounded

Vss: +5V supply

VEE: used for controlling the contrast



RS, Register Select: There are two very important registers inside LCD. The RS pin is used for     the selection as follows.

RS = 0:  instruction command code register is selected, allowing the user to send a command such as clear display, cursor at home etc.

RS = 1:  data register is selected, allowing the user to send the data to be displayed on LCD.



R/W, Read Write: R/W input allows the user to write information to the LCD or read from it.

R/W = 1: Reading

R/W = 0: Writing



E Enable :  the enable pin is used by the LCD to latch information presented to its data pins. When data is supplied to data pins, a high- to-low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data presented data pins. This pulse must be minimum 450 nano sec wide.



D0-D7 : data pins





3)      MAX232



Microcontroller

                     uC pin 10 => RXD => MAX pin 9

                     uC pin11 => TXD => MAX pin 10



(Figure 4.3 Pin Diagram of MAX232 IC)

Features:

Operates up to 120 kbits/s

Two drivers and two receivers

± 30V input levels

Low supply current…8 mA typical







APPLICATIONS OF MAX232

TIA/EIA-232-F

Battery-Powered Systems

Terminals

Modems

Computers





4)      CRYSTAL : 11.0592MHz



·         X1 – pin 18

·         X2 – pin 19




(Figure 4.5 Circuit Diagram of Crystal)



It is used to generate internal Clock Frequency. P89V51RD2 can work in a range of 0-40 MHz, but here we use 11.0592 MHz to match universal serial communication speed of 9600 bauds.











                                                                         

CHAPTER 5

                                                                          SOFTWARE USED





























FLASH MAGIC




Flash Magic



It  is  used  to  load  &  run  the  programs  on  hardware.

For  the  use  of  this  software, the  hex  file  of  the  programme is  necessary.

This facility uses to change the baud rate, chip etc.

The snap shot is shown. 



KEIL MICRO VISION 4





keil microvision - 4

This  software  is  used  for  programming  in  C  language  &  assembly.

It facilitates to debug & run programs.

Hex file of the program can be made & save.

It warns about the errors.

PROTEUS DESIGN SUIT



      

Proteus Design Suit



This software is basically used for simulation.

In case of absence of hardware, we can use this simulator as our virtual circuit to check the output of programming. It has all the available components, analog as well as digital, plus mostly all the available microcontroller IC’s.





                                              





                                                                                





Chapter 6

                                                                             Advantages and

                                                                             Application























1. Congestion reduction -- The toll transaction rate is highly increased due to the use of ETC systems. Since the vehicles do not stop at the toll facility, the throughput is highly increased. This has considerable effect on the congestion of the toll plaza. As the proportion of the ETC user increases the congestion in the manual as well as the automatic lanes is also reduced. The average number of vehicles waiting in the queue reduces and so the average waiting time is reduced.



2. Increased Capacity -- It is observed that the capacity of the electronic lane increases by three fold. The toll plaza would be able to accommodate the increasing traffic without requiring building additional lanes.



3. Fuel saving -- The deceleration, acceleration and idling is completely eliminated. This results in gas saving for the patrons using ETC. Besides the elimination of acceleration and deceleration results in reduction of the operating cost of the vehicles.



4. Operating cost saving -- Over a period of time, the toll collecting cost is reduced. There is reduction in the man-hour required as the system does not require any human interaction for the toll transaction.



5. Time saving -- ETC users do not stop for paying toll, thus there is considerable saving in the travel time. Besides the travel time reliability is increased as the travel time can be estimated fairly accurately.



6. Emission control -- Due to the elimination of the acceleration and idling, vehicular emissions are reduced. Though this benefit only affects the surrounding area it is seen that there is an increase in the highway financing by building toll plazas. In many non-attainment areas as declared by Environment Protection Agency (EPA), ETC seems to be one of the possibilities for air pollutant reduction.



7. Enhanced cash handing -- There is no cash transaction for the ETC lane so cash handling is reduced so difficulties with cash handling is eliminated. Thus aid in enhanced audit control by centralizing user accounts.



8. Payment flexibility -- The patrons do not have to worry about searching for cash for the toll payment. Since the patrons set up account for ETC usage it gives customers the flexibility of paying their toll bill with cash, check, or even credit cards.



9. Enhanced data collection -- Information such as vehicle count over the time of the day, date, time etc can be obtained due to the deployment of this technology. This helps in making decisions regarding the pricing strategies for the toll providers. It also helps planner to estimate the travel time that aid in designing decisions.



10. Incident reduction --It is observed that there is reduction in the number of incidents caused near the toll plazas

















Chapter 7



                                                                             References































































Book

            Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi,Second Edition

Websides



http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/texasinstruments/max232.pdf


http:/www.wikipedia.org/wiki/electronics_toll_collection

http:/www.etransit.org/rfid_1.htm


















The Electronic Toll Collection technology concept of prepaying tolls is catching on nationally and globally. As we have described in report RFID BASED TOLL COLLECTION SYSTEM is important that we have seen in advantages.

Till date we have done project as shown in circuit. In 8th semester we will implement EEPROM. It is the main part of project where vehicle numbers, vehicle types and other detail stored. We will try our best for this project.









4 comments:

  1. thanxx u r support nd suggestion are accepted at any ways

    ReplyDelete
  2. Dear friend..Can I have the simulation file of this project?
    hasulahkb@gmail.com
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  3. please write a c code program of project

    ReplyDelete